Karl Marx

  • 640px Proudhon children

    Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management,[10] as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.[11] Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity.[12] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15]

  • History seems to have packed hundreds of years of happenings into a single 20-year period starting approximately in the year 1900.

    The world was a very different place. It was predominantly ruled by a nobility who were drastically interrelated. They held their autocratic prerogatives closely feeling that the common people were not sophisticated enough to rule themselves. In Europe, ethnic groups were restless and longed for their own countries based on similar religions, languages and cultures. In Africa, India, China and the Far East these European powers struggled with each other to hold on to colonies for raw materials and cheap labor. Meanwhile, the major powers such as Britain, France and the United States were rapidly industrializing. People were moving from the countryside to the cities looking for work in factories and living wherever they could afford and preyed upon by a criminal class. There were no restrictions on child labor, safety codes to protect workers in mines, mills or manufacturing. Trade unions were organized and politicized. And there was no standardized education or required years in school. The rich sent their children (mostly the boys) to private preparatory schools and then off to college and the poor by 1906 sent their children off to free primary and secondary schools set up to create workers for industry. Most children dropped out by age 12.

    The middle classes were reading and organizing, seeking either no government (called anarchy) or a government of the people. Impatient for change from the rigid social structures of their times, some turned to violence hoping to spark the immediate overthrow of the owners of businesses and the upper classes. Others worked to get the ability to vote in democratic governments to end their disenfranchisement. 

    It was a time of rapid change of fashion, literature, dance, music, journalism and cultural mores. Yet, for the Jews, it was a time of isolation, impoverishment in some areas liberation and new citizenship in other areas, but major anti-semitism worldwide.

    In 1900, a snapshot of state leaders is all that is needed to understand how entrenched and encrusted with privileges this world was and that it all came tumbling down by 1914 by "The War to End All Wars":

    • China: Emperor Puyi (1908-1912); Premier Yikuang, Prince Qing Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet (1903-1911)
    • Japan: Emperor Mutshito (1867-1912); Prime Minister Katsura Tarõ (1908-1911)
    • Korea: Annexed by Japan on August 29, 1910.
    • Ottoman Empire: Emperor Mehmed V (1909-1918); Grand Vizier Huseyin Hilmi Pasha and then Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (1909-1911)
    • Austria-Hungary: Emperor Franz Joseph (1848-1916)
    • Bulgaria: Tsar Ferdinand I (1887-1918); Premier Aleksandar Malinov (1908-1911)
    • France: President Armand Fallières (1906-1913); Prime Minister Aristide Briand (1909-1911)
    • Germany: Emperor Wilhelm II (1888-1918); Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (1909-1917)
    • Italy: King Victor Emmanuel III (1900-1946); Prime Minister Sidney Sonnino and then Luigi Luzzatti (1909-1911)
    • Norway: King Haakon VII (1905-1957); Prime Minister Gunnar Knudsen and then Wollert Konow (1908-1912)
    • Romania: King Carol I (1866-1914); Prime Minister Ion I.C. Brâtinanu and then Petre P. Carp (1909-1912)
    • Russian Empire: Tzar Nicholas II (1894-1917); Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin (1906-1911)
    • Spain: King Alfonso XIII (1886-1931); Prime Minister Segismundo Moret and then José Canalejas (1909-1912)
    • United Kingdom: King Edward VII (1901-1910) and then George V (1910-1936); Prime Minister H.H. Asquith (1908-1916)
    • Mexico: President Porfirio Diaz (1884-1911)
    • Canada (British Dominion Beyond the Seas): Governor General Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey (1904-1911)
    • South Africa Founded May 31, 1910 (British Dominion Beyond the Seas): Governor General Viscount Gladstone (1910-1914)
    • The United States of America: President William Howard Taft (1909-1913) and then Woodrow Wilson (1914-1924)
    • Australia (British Dominion Beyond the Seas): Governor General William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley (1908-1911)

    A sampling of events that happened in the year 1910 portrays the richness of cultural and technological developments and the seething violence beneath the surface:

    • January 13: The first public radio broadcast.
    • February 20: Boutros Ghali, first native-born Prime Minister of Egypt assassinated.
    • March 10: Slavery in China declared illegal.
    • June 22: DELAG Zeppelin dirigible Deutschland makes its first passenger flight.
    • June 25: Igor Stravinsky's ballet, The Firebird, commissioned by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, is premièred in Paris
    • March to July 24th: Albanian revolt against The Ottoman Empire.
    • August 28: Montenegro is proclaimed an independent kingdom under Nicholas I.
    • August 29: Emperor Sunjong of Korea abdicates and the country's monarchy is abolished.
    • October 5: October 5th Revolution declares the first Portuguese Republic in Lisbon and King Manuel II flees the country.
    • November 7: The first commercial cargo air flight in the United States by the Wright Brothers Company from Dayton, Ohio to Columbus, Ohio.
    • November 20: Mexican Revolution begins
    • December: Pneumonic plague spreads in northeastern China killing more than 40,000 people.
    • December 3: Neon lighting is demonstrated by Georges Claude at the Paris Motor Show.

     

    Here is a sampling of assasinations that occurred between the years 1900 and 1914:

    • 1913: Franz Schuhmeier, a Socialist member of the Austrian parliament by Paul Kunschak
    • 1916: Count Karl von Sturgkh, Minister-President of Austria y Friedrich Adler
    • June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Bosnia and Herzegovina by Gavrilo Princip
    • 1907: Dimitar Petkov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria
    • 1904: Nikolai Ivanovich Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland by Eugen Schauman
    • 1905: Eliel Soisalon-Soininen, Attorney General of Finland by Lennart Hohenthal
    • 1911: Valde Hirvikanta, President of Turku Court of Appeal in Finland by Bruno Forsstrom
    • June 24, 1894: Marie François Sadi Carnot, President of France by Sante Geronimo Caserio, anarchist.
    • July 30, 1914: Jean Jaures, pacifist politician in France by Raoul villain
    • June 13, 1905: Theodoros Deligiannis, Prime Minister of Greece by Antonios Gherakaris
    • March 18, 1913: King George I of Greece by Alexandros Schinas
    • July 29, 1900: King Umberto I of Italy by Gaetano Bresci
    • January 23, 1913: Mahmud Sevket Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
    • February 1, 1908: King Carlos I and his son Luiz Filipe of Portugal by Manuel Buiça and Alfredo Luis da Costa
    • April 8, 1902: Dmitry Sipyagin, Russian Interior Minister by Stepan Balmashov
    • 1904: Vyacheslav von Plehve, Russian Interior Minister by Yegor Sazonov
    • 1905: Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov, former Governor General of Moscow by Ivan Kalyayev
    • September 14, 1911: Pyotr Stolypin, Prime Minister of Russia by Dmitry Bogrov
    • 1917: Ivan Logginovich Goremykin, former Prime Minister of Russia by Konstantin X. Kotev
    • July 16, 1918: Tzar Nicholas II and his family, Physician Eugene Botkin, Maid Anna Demidova, Footman Alexei Trupp and Cook Ivan Kharitonov by Cheka officers lead by Yakov Yurovsky
    • July 18, 1918: Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Hesse, Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, Princes Jon Constantinovich, Constantine Constantinovich and Igor Constantinovich, Poet and Prince Vladimir Paley and Nun Varvara Yakovleva by Cheka Officers of Russia
    • 1918: V. Volodarsky, Russian revolutionary by Grigory Ivanovich Semyonov
    • 1918: Wilhelm von Mirbach, German Ambassador in Moscow by Yakov Blumkin
    • 1903: King Aleksandar Obrenovic of Serbia and Draga Masin, his Queen consort by Serbian army officers lead by Dragutin Dimitrijevic
    • 1903: Prime Minister Dimitrije Cincar-Markovic of Serbia and Lazar Petrovic of Serbia as part of the May overthrow
    • 1912: Prime Minister José Canalejas of Spain by Manuel Pardiñas

    City of 72 Names looks at this time through the eyes of four very different people and how their lives intersected with all this change happening around them. Here are some of the large events that impacted our protagonists:

    Important Events And Political Movements Worldwide

     

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Moshe "Morris" Levy

Bodyguard and General to Chinese Nationalist Army

Two-Gun Levy was a real person named Morris Cohen and given the nickname "2-Gun" because he always carried two guns. He protected both Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek from 1911 until his death in the 1950s.

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Pinchas Levy

Poet and Warrior

Pinchas Levy participated in a love battle that became the talk of Ottoman Palestine. He fought with the Jewish Legion in WWI and then settled down at one of the first Kibbutzim.

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Dovid "Davey Boy" Levy

Head of the Freedman Gang and Mobster

David Levy joined one of the lower East side New York City gangs and eventually became head of one of the most notorious mobs in the US.

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Leah Levy

Bolshevik revolutionary

Leah Levy was a member of the wealthy and influential Polyakov family who became disillusioned and radicalized. She joined the Bolsheviks and through much suffering remained a member of the Communist party until her death in the late 1950s.